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Primrose Hill Elementary School (PHS) provides Targeted Assistance to students with reading difficulties through its Title I Program. Equal opportunity is provided to students with disabilities receiving Individual Education Programs (IEP), English Language Learners (ELLs), or students in Migrant Education Program (MEP). The Title I teacher reviews screening data and diagnostic data with the English as a Second Language teacher and the special educators. The team of qualified professionals determine which students will benefit from Title I services. Based upon student needs, students are assigned to Title services regardless of ELL, IEP, or MEP status. “Automatically eligible” groups (Neglected or Delinquent, students experiencing homelessness, or students served in past 2 years by HeadStart, Even Start, Early Reading First, preschool funded by Title I) are included. At the start of the school year, the Title I teacher reviews documentation from said programs to determine which students entering PHS have been served. These students are automatically added to the service roster.
The reading specialist provides direct services to identified students 4 to 5 times per week for 30 to 45 minute sessions depending on the requirements of the intervention and level of student need. The reading specialist is trained to employ the following methods and strategies based on each student's diagnostic assessment profile: Orton Gillingham, Soar to Success, Project Read, Reading Recovery, and Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy in small and flexible groups. On the Evidence for ESSA site, John Hopkins provides strong evidence based research for the Reading Recovery Program. "In comparison to control groups, the average effect size across the four studies was +0.43 on measures such as ITBS, CAT, Woodcock, and Gates. These outcomes qualify Reading Recovery for the ESSA “Strong” category, and for the “Solid Outcomes” rating (at least two studies with effect sizes of at least +0.20)." Further, students are provided with instruction using Read Naturally. What Works Clearing House provides an evidence based study entitled, Improving reading fluency and comprehension in elementary students using Read Naturally (Arvans, R., 2010, pp. 74-649), suggesting improved reading achievement in a randomized control group of students in grades 2-4. In addition, The National Reading Panel’s Teaching Children to Read: An Evidenced-Based Assessment of Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction (April 2000) supported the Orton-Gillingham direct systematic phonics instruction. The NRP presented findings through an evidence-based analysis of the research literature showing that direct systematic phonics programs provide the most effective method of delivering an accurate foundation of phonological decoding and that OG is an effective-evidence based approach for struggling readers. Finally, according to a study by Reading Success found on eduplace.com, SOAR to Success, was implemented in 24 different schools within 13 sites nationwide, ranging from metropolitan to rural areas over a 2-year period (1996-1997). Data shows that by using the Project Success model, students gained as much as 20% in retelling (comprehension), 10% oral reading fluency, and 2% in vocabulary and comprehension over control groups with an average of 76 days of instruction."
Additional supports will be provided in the form of Read Naturally online to build and reinforce fluency skills at school and home. In addition, before and after school interventions will be provided to Title I students to minimize pull out time, and to close achievement gaps.
Classroom teachers and specialists recommend students for services based upon performance on classroom and district assessments including AimsWeb Reading and Early Literacy, RIGBY levels. CORE Multiple Measures, Primary Spelling Inventory, Project Read Assessments, Fastbridge Reading assessment and Test of Word Reading Efficiency along with curriculum based measurements. In addition, the reading specialist provides benchmark assessment using the Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System. Conferences are held with parents to review the assessment results and literacy strengths and needs of the student. Student selection includes assessment data as well as feedback from parents and teachers. Personal Literacy Plans are developed for all students who are selected. Student progress is monitored with AimsWeb, CORE Multiple Measures, Project Read Assessments, Fastbridge assessment, and other classroom based formative assessment practices. The estimated number of students who will receive services from the reading specialist is between 30 and 35. The program is of sufficient size, scope and quality with the present schedule. In addition, because of our program evaluation, it was determined that interventions were needed, as Project Read was not meeting the needs of all learners. PHS has evaluated and adopted Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy Interventions for and Reading Recovery.
In addition, job-embedded training and coaching from Hill Literacy on Project Read was provided to all teachers servicing students receiving Title I services in grades 2 and 3. This training will continue and include grade 1 teachers of Title I students in the 2017-2018 school year. In a recent study, Effect of Instructional Coaching on Literacy Achievement in the Elementary Classroom (Dattie, 2015) found "that on average, teachers with more coaching cycles also had more positive attitude scores regarding coaching as a professional development. Half of the grade levels examined had greater student literacy achievement with more coaching cycles completed." Based upon internal data, this coaching is necessary to strengthen the school's Tier I program to reduce the number of students requiring Tier II services.
The Title I teacher participated in intensive summer training in Reading Recovery and is using the assessments and materials with qualified students, and has continued her training and work through that grant. She will continue Reading Recovery training in 2017-2018.
Exit criteria for Title I services: Once enrolled in Title I services, students are progress monitored on a regular basis in accordance with their learning plan and the requirements of the specific intervention they are receiving. For example, students receiving Fountas and Pinnell leveled literacy intervention are progress monitored every six days. In addition, students are also screened on a regular basis using Fastbridge. Students demonstrated grade level proficiency for three months are provided a diagnostic to confirm proficiency. Parents are invited to a meeting to review exit criteria and student results. Parents are provided an opportunity to sign the exit portion of the PLP. Students are monitored closely after exiting. Any student who begins to show need through the school screens and classroom data are eligible to reengage in services.
PHS reviews student achievement data on an ongoing basis. There are quarterly data meetings to specifically look at student achievement and growth data. When the data indicates a need for program changes/review, the principal, Title I teacher, and Assistant Superintendent create action plans such as those that led to the adoption of Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy and Reading Recovery to fill a need in comprehension interventions. In addition, parent survey information and meetings with parents also provide valuable information in revising the program.
The District will notify parents at the start of each year at Open House as well as in the Title I newsletter and on the Title I webpage about their right to know the qualifications of teachers and paraprofessionals in Title I schools. Click here for a direct link to the public access portal on the RIDE website for parents to be able to see the qualifications for all of the teachers.
The District will notify parents in writing if a child in a Title I school is being taught for four or more consecutive weeks by a teacher who does not meet applicable State certification or licensure requirements at the grade level and subject area in which the teacher is assigned. The principal will work with the teacher to obtain the correct credentials, and provide additional supports and coaching from the Title I teacher and instructional specialist in the school.